Future Solutions

Course Overview:

Process Unit Operations & Maintenance of process plant and equipment presents both a major technical and management challenge. With this in mind, this program addresses the technical issues of commissioning, starting up, unit Operations and maintenance of various equipment and asset types commonly found in processing plant environments, process, and facility.

This course is designed to provide participants with an up-to-date overview of the Process Unit Operations & Maintenance of Process plants including troubleshooting of the start-up process. It includes the methodology for Process Unit Operations & Maintenance of process plants which can be used when commissioning a new plant or for modified equipment in an existing facility, or in a turnaround shutdown or overhaul scenario and normal plant operations. It takes the approach that commissioning is a series of checks and counter-checks to confirm every unit in the process plant is fit for purpose and suitable for operation.

During the course, each participant will gain enough skills to anticipate and avoid problems associated unit Operations and maintenance. Participants will gain a satisfactory understanding of the unit Operations and maintenance strategy, organizational issues, estimation of required resources, mechanical integrity, troubleshooting, start-up operations, technical inspection, instrumentation control systems, HSE and other necessary knowledge associated with the process plant start-up , Operations and maintenance.

Actual case studies from around the world will be demonstrated to highlight the topics discussed.

Course Objectives :

After the end of course participants will be able to:

  • Apply systematic techniques in process plant start-up, Process Unit Operations & Maintenance and troubleshooting
  • Carryout planning and preparation as well as cost estimation
  • Acquire advance knowledge in Process Units start-up, shut down and Emergency Operations
  • Acquire advance knowledge in Routine & Turnaround maintenance.
  • Acquire advance knowledge in Pre-start-up check, inertisation, leak test, introducing hydrocarbon, start-up and stabilization of plant, start-up Hazards
  • Acquire advance knowledge in Shutdown procedure, Steam-out procedure Preparation for maintenance work, Permits for maintenance work,Safety considerations in shutdown operations, Pyrophoric iron sulphides hazards prevention, Hydrocarbon draining/flaring procedures,-Isolation of electrical systems, blinding de-blinding procedure (CRIC recommendations) and shut down blind list, work list preparation
  • Acquire advance knowledge in Special procedures-heater de-coking, catalyst loading/unloading, catalyst reduction/sulphhiding.
  • Acquire advance knowledge in Emergency operation-Feed & Utility failure, Power failure and fire emergency
  • Apply start-up operations, start-up progress monitoring and control as well as determine instrumentation and control systems in commissioning process
  • Demonstrate performance trials troubleshooting and problem solving
  • Implement change management including operational techniques and post commissioning audit in process plants

Who should attend

This course is intended for,

  • Operation And Maintenance Staff
  • Plant Supervisors & Plant Staff

Training Methodology:

  • Participants will learn by active participation during the program using exercises, questionnaire, syndicate and group discussion.

Course Outlines:


Introduction to Process Unit Operations & Maintenance

  • What is Process Unit Operations & Maintenance?
  • Terminology & Definitions.
  • Characterizing Hydrocarbon
  • Single-Component Systems
  • Two-Component Systems
  • Three-Component Systems
  • Multicomponent Systems


Basic Concepts to remember

  • Flow diagrams
  • Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)
  • Process equipment
  • Introduction to mass and energy balances
  • Project life cycle.
  • Contracting Strategy


Introduction to Plant troubleshooting

  • Definition of troubleshooting.
  • Steps of troubleshooting.
  • Identify the problem.
  • Determine the cause of the problem.
  • Correct the problem.
  • Return the process to service.
  • Sources of information.
  • Why to Effectively Manage Start-Up?
  • Avoiding start up delays & problems.
  • Commissioning & start up flow process.
  • Commissioning & Start up team organization & structure.
  • Startup task force responsibilities.


Process Plant and Machinery Specific Issues

  • Process Plant and Machinery Commissioning
  • Instrumentation and Control Systems
  • Preparing and Isolating Process Plant
  • Hazard Study & Risk Management
  • The critical path method CPM.
  • Spare parts management process.


Startup check list

  • how to prepare a check list?
  • Punch list preparation & filtering.
  • Inspecting Towers & vessels.
  • Pipe line mechanical completion.
  • Dynamic Simulation For Commissioning
  • Commissioning Implement & Operational Testing
  • Effective Start up requirements.


Flushing, cleaning & purging activities.

  • Pyrophoric Iron Sulphides Hazards Prevention
  • Hydrocarbon Draining/Flaring Procedures
  • Isolation Of Electrical Systems
  • Blinding De-Blinding Procedure (CRIC Recommendations)
  • Shut Down Blind List
  • Work List Preparation


Process plant machinery startup and operation.

  • Testing general principles.
  • Preparing to Introduce Process Fluids hydrocarbons.
  • Pipe line testing (Hydro test, GLT & CLT).
  • Isolation of Process Vessels and Pipework.
  • Single isolation; blind rated isolation.
  • Double block & bleed philosophy.
  • Purging & steaming for the interconnecting piping mechanism
  • De-salter Commissioning procedure
  • Heater de-coking
  • Catalyst loading and unloading procedure
  • Catalyst reduction/sulphhiding
  • Utilities start up.
  • Process units start up.
  • Vessel start procedure
  • Sources of problems during the startup operations.




Hazards associated with the startup operation.

  • Prestart up safety review.
  • Performance & acceptance testing.
  • Lining up the Plant facilities.
  • Coordination and Supervision during Start-up
  • Update Operating Procedures to “As Commissioned”
  • Assist Continued Operation, Troubleshooting and/or De-bottlenecking Projects


Centrifugal pumps operations & maintenance

  • Operating characteristics
  • Priming, cavitation
  • NPSH, NPSH margin
  • Power requirement for pumping
  • Pump performance curves
  • Head – capacity curve [H – Q]
  • Power – capacity curve [P – Q]
  • Efficiency – capacity curve [η – Q]
  • Specific speeds
  • Operating point of centrifugal pump


Compressor working principles, types, operations & maintenance aspects

  • Classification, Types of compressors
  • Operational principles and constructional features
  • Compressor operation
  • Performance characteristics curves
  • Minimum and maximum flow, constraints
  • Surge, significance and control
  • Compressor selection and specification, criteria for drive rating selection
  • Performance testing
  • Standards and acceptance criteria for performance testing


Principle of process relief devices and process design of relief systems

Boilers and Facility Auxiliaries operations & maintenance

  • Steam Boilers
  • Boiler Systems
  • Steam System Fittings
  • Steam System Accessories
  • Feedwater Systems
  • Water Treatment
  • Combustion Equipment
  • Fuels and Combustion
  • Combustion and Boiler Controls
  • Draft Systems
  • Instrumentation and Control Systems operations & maintenance
  • Steam Boiler Operation


Heat exchangers operations & maintenance

  • Thermal conductivity
  • Conduction and convection
  • Insulation
  • Heat transfer coefficients
  • Heat exchangers, type and sizing
  • Heat exchangers troubleshooting


Measurement and instrumentation devices operations & maintenance

  • Liquid and gas metering using positive displacement meters
  • Orifices
  • Sonic meters
  • Mass measurement meters
  • Three phase flow measurement
  • New metering devices
  • Troubleshooting Of Process Control
  • Introduction
  • Open loop system
  • Closed loop system
  • Fundamentals of process control
  • On – off controller
  • Description of key points in the operation of control systems like: DCS, PLC, UPS, SCADA, etc.           
  • Process Control Troubleshooting
  • Fail safe


Valves operations & maintenance

  • Various types of valves
  • Gate
  • Expanding gate
  • Plug
  • Ball
  • Check
  • Valve Maintenance


Operational Safety

  • Roles and Responsibilities
  • Routine Operations
  • Operating within Process and Equipment Limits
  • Written Procedures
  • Standby Operations
  • Utility and Power failure
  • Emergency Operations
  • Management of Change
  • Safety Shutdown Systems
  • Pressure Relief Equipment
  • Incident Investigation
  • Audits, Inspections, Compliance Reviews
  • Working safely in confined spaces
  • Hazardous (classified) locations




Shutdown/Turnaround Operations

  • Introduction to Shut down and Turnaround Management
  • The Shutdown Management Process
  • Organization and Roles
  • Plant Shutdown and Preparation for Maintenance
  • Scope of Work Development and Work Breakdown Structures
  • Preparation and Execution Issues
  • Logistics, infrastructure and materials management
  • Developing Shutdown and Turnaround Plans
  • The Critical Path Planning Method
  • Developing the overall Shutdown Plan.
  • Shut down Progress Monitoring and Control.
  • Process Plant troubleshooting
  • Definition of troubleshooting.
  • Steps of troubleshooting.
  • Identify the problem.
  • Determine the cause of the problem.
  • Correct the problem.
  • Return the process to service.
  • Sources of information.
  • Process Plant And Machinery Specific Issues
  • Process Plant and Machinery Commissioning
  • Instrumentation and Control Systems
  • Preparing and Isolating Process Plant


Process Unit Troubleshooting

  • Technical Issues, Solutions, Implementing Changes,
  • Introduction to troubleshooting procedures and techniques,
  • Troubleshooting during start-up, Technical Issues and solutions,
  • Problem Analysis, Practical Use of Tools and Techniques, Developing
  • Troubleshooting and Problem Solving skills, Implementing
  • Changes, Start- up and process simulation (Hands-On Demonstration) Shutdown and Decommissioning,